[17]:160 At this point the Swedish assault had disintegrated and no longer had organized bodies of troops to oppose the Russian infantry or cavalry. Russia had defeated what was considered to be one of the world's best militaries, and the victory overturned the view that Russia was militarily incompetent. [16]:289, Between the Russian and Swedish forces the Yakovetski and Budyschenski woods formed a corridor, which the Russians defended by building six forts across the gap. [35], The once powerful Persian Safavid Empire to the south was in deep decline. The Great Northern War was fought between Sweden’s Charles XII and a coalition lead by Peter the Great. With Maximilian Schell, Vanessa Redgrave, Omar Sharif, Trevor Howard. Taking advantage of the profitable situation, Peter launched the Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723, otherwise known as "The Persian Expedition of Peter the Great", which drastically increased Russian influence for the first time in the Caucasus and Caspian Sea region, and prevented the Ottoman Empire from making territorial gains in the region. Warfare: Renaissance to revolution (1492-1792), Cambridge, 1996 Sweden Defeats Peter the Great In 1697, Sweden acquired a new monarch: a 15-year-old who took the name Charles XII. [17]:97–99 Lewenhaupt's ten battalions on the right bypassed the first four redoubts entirely, advancing to the back line and, with the aid of cavalry, took some redoubts while bypassing others. He divorced the Tsaritsa and forced her to join a convent. [15], Rather than winter in Livonia or wait for Lewenhaupt, Charles decided to move southward into Ukraine and join Mazepa, who had decided to rebel against Peter. Peter implemented a law that stipulated that no Russian man could join a monastery before the age of fifty. Peter's half-sister Sophia — was forced to become a nun. The Senate was founded as the highest state institution to supervise all judicial, financial and administrative affairs. However, he was able to secure some territory on the Baltic Coast after his victory against Sweden in the Great Northern War. [13]:704 During the spring Gen. Lewenhaupt in Courland had been ordered to gather supplies and march his army of about 12,000 men to join Charles' forces. In 1721, Peter followed the advice of Theophan Prokopovich in designing the Holy Synod as a council of ten clergymen. The results of the war vastly increased the size of European Russia and allowed Peter the Great’s ambition for … [17]:174, Realizing they were the last Swedes on the battlefield, Charles ordered a retreat to the woods, gathering what remaining forces he could for protection, including the remnants of Creutz's detachment. Peter implemented social modernization in an absolute manner by introducing French and western dress to his court and requiring courtiers, state officials, and the military to shave their beards and adopt modern clothing styles. In 1703, on the shores of the river Neva, Peter laid the foundations for the Fortress of Peter and Paul, which grew to become Saint Petersburg, Russia’s capital until 1917. He lined the walls with vodka, rum, and 40 kinds of beers; Swedish combined army:24,000 Swedish regulars  (13,000 cavalry     11,000 infantry)[2][b] 6,000 irregulars  1,000 Polish vlach cavalry    3,000–7,000     Cossacks[c][3]34 artillery pieces, Participated in battle:8,700 infantry[2]7,800 cavalry[2]4 cannons, Russian combined army:52,100 Russian regulars  (33,500 infantry     18,600 cavalry)[2]23,000 irregulars[2]  (Cossacks and Kalmyks,   3,000 Kalmyks arrived   at the end of the battle)102 artillery pieces, Participated in battle:24,500 infantry14,600 dragoons[2]3,000 Kalmyks[3]86 cannons, Swedish accounts: 6,900 killed and wounded, 2,800 captured. [51] The Communists executed the last Romanoffs, and their historians such as Mikhail Pokrovsky presented strongly negative views of the entire dynasty. All of Peter's male children had died. Peter the Great is most famous for initiating the modernization of Russia and making it into a major maritime power. This position changed when Feodor died in 1682. Without his signature no Senate decision could go into effect; the Senate became one of the most important institutions of Imperial Russia.[31]. Zvezda Russian Artillery of Peter the Great . Pyotr Velikiy, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj]), Peter I (Russian: Пётр Первый, tr. Tsar and 1st Emperor, founder of the Russian Empire, This article is about the Russian monarch. Peter forced Sophia to enter a convent, where she gave up her name and her position as a member of the royal family.[8]. The expedition ended in complete disaster when the entire expeditionary force was slaughtered. [13] One means of achieving this end was the introduction of taxes for long beards and robes in September 1698. He negotiated with Frederick William, Duke of Courland to marry his niece, Anna Ivanovna. In the summer of 1724, a team of doctors performed surgery releasing upwards of four pounds of blocked urine. The rebellion was easily crushed before Peter returned home from England; of the Tsar's troops, only one was killed. [30] Peter's campaign in the Ottoman Empire was disastrous, and in the ensuing Treaty of the Pruth, Peter was forced to return the Black Sea ports he had seized in 1697. Peter nevertheless acted ruthlessly towards the mutineers. Strelets Artillery of Peter I . In 1700, he waged war on Sweden in order to control the Baltic Sea. Sophia, one of Alexis' daughters from his first marriage, led a rebellion of the Streltsy (Russia's elite military corps) in April–May 1682. Peter the Great was seeking to extend Russia’s influence and needed access to Baltic ports to expand trade. 30 May] 1672 – 8 February [O.S. Peter hired Italian and German architects to design it. Peter decided that all of the children of the nobility should have some early education, especially in the areas of sciences. [40], Peter the Great had two wives, with whom he had fourteen children, three of whom survived to adulthood. Peter was not particularly concerned that others ruled in his name. Traditionally, the years were reckoned from the purported creation of the World, but after Peter's reforms, they were to be counted from the birth of Christ. This throne can be seen in the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow. An autopsy revealed his bladder to be infected with gangrene. The Tsar retained some Finnish lands close to Saint Petersburg, which he had made his capital in 1712.[32]. There he founded the city of St.Petersburg as his 'window to the West' Peter, however, mistrusted the boyars; he instead abolished the Duma and created a Senate of ten members. Zvezda Russian Strelets Infantry . [17]:175, 180 The Russians halted at the edge of the woods and their artillery fire stopped; only the Cossacks and Kalmycks roamed the plains south of the woods. The Streltsy made it possible for Sophia, the Miloslavskys (the clan of Ivan) and their allies to insist that Peter and Ivan be proclaimed joint Tsars, with Ivan being acclaimed as the senior. Great Northern War (1700–21) Conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in northern Central Europe and Eastern Europe. Sophia acted as regent during the minority of the sovereigns and exercised all power. Zvezda Russian Infantry of Peter the Great . The imperial title of Peter the Great was the following:[2]. Peter declared war on Sweden, which was at the time led by the young King Charles XII. [17]:108–09 There they awaited Roos' battalions for two hours, while the Russian cavalry and Ivan Skoropadsky's Cossacks waited to the north, with 13 Russian battalions deployed north of their camp and ten to the south, anticipating a Swedish advance. Nevertheless it is still quoted in foreign policy circles. Standing at 6 ft 8 (203 cm) in height, the Russian tsar was literally head and shoulders above his contemporaries both in Russia and throughout Europe. The Great Northern War With Sweden. The story depicts the efforts of Peter in transforming Russia in an "all European" country, importing scientists, costumes, technology, and … According to legend, in November, at Lakhta along the Finnish Gulf to inspect some ironworks, Peter saw a group of soldiers drowning near shore and, wading out into near-waist deep water, came to their rescue.[37]. Part of the Second Northern War. [17]:105 It was 5:00 a.m. when the left and right wings of the Swedish army made it past the back line of redoubts, sending the Russian cavalry in retreat. land along the Baltic Sea. [19]:107, Charles and Mazepa escaped with about 1,500 men to Bendery, Moldavia, then controlled by the Ottoman Empire. ", Waugh, Daniel Clarke. Tauris & Co. Ltd., coldest winter in Europe in over 500 years, surrender three days later at Perevolochna, О составе русской и шведской армий в Полтавском сражении, The History of Charles XII, King of Sweden, The Genuine Letters of Baron Fabricius Envoy from His Serene Highness the Duke Administrator of Holstein to Charles XII of Sweden, Sequel to Poltava: Diplomacy to contain Russia 1709–1714, Voltaire's History of Charles XII King of Sweden, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Poltava&oldid=1002034193, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Turning point in the Great Northern War; decline of the Swedish Empire, Tsardom of Russia establishes itself as a new power in Europe, Brown, Peter B. Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy wrote a biographical historical novel about him, named Pëtr I, in the 1930s. [7], The "Grand Embassy" continued nevertheless. The high vizier of the Turks was eventually paid off, with much intrigue and espionage involved and plots within plots, at one point involving a ransom of the Russian crown jewels, according to Charles' prison translator.[20]. Peter knew that Russia could not face the Ottoman Empire alone. Sweden. "The Battle of Poltava in Russian Historical Memory. Peter I the Great of Russia, Augustus II of Poland (also Elector of Saxony), and Frederick IV of Denmark saw Sweden as vulnerable due to the youth of the new king of Sweden, Charles XII, then sixteen. He engaged in such pastimes as shipbuilding, sailing, and blacksmithing[6] as well as mock battles with his toy army. ", Gerner, Kristian. In the subsequent conflict, some of Peter's relatives and friends were murdered, including Matveev, and Peter witnessed some of these acts of political violence.[5]. Peter obtained the assistance of the Electorate of Hanover and the Kingdom of Prussia. Great Northern War. For this reason, he fought wars with the Swedes and the Turks to obtain a port for the Russian army. [13]:704 The Swedes continued to the area around Smorgon and Minsk, where the army went into winter quarters. While the Poles fought the Swedes, Peter founded the city of Saint Petersburg in 1703, in Ingermanland (a province of the Swedish Empire that he had captured). Russo-Swedish War (1741–43) Also known as the Hats' Russian War. "Gazing Anew at Poltava: Perspectives from the Military Revolution Controversy, Comparative History, and Decision-Making Doctrines. However, within twelve years all the territories would be ceded back to Persia, now led by the charismatic military genius Nader Shah, as part of the Treaties of Resht and Ganja respectively, and the Russo-Persian alliance against the Ottoman Empire, which was the common enemy of both.[36]. Anderson, M.S. However, his departure from Mitau was delayed until late June and consequently he only joined Charles' forces on 11 October. The History of Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia: To which is Prefixed a Short General History of the Country from the Rise of that Monarchy: and an Account of the Author's Life, Volume 1. He was involved in several wars, most prominently the Azov campaigns against the Ottoman Empire and the Great Northern War against Sweden. This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 01:43. 27 April] 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power and also laid the groundwork for the Imperial Russian Navy after capturing ports at Azov and the Baltic Sea. Between 1713 and 1728, and from 1732 to 1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia. He was one of the founders of modern Russia. – СПб., 1855. Peter became the sole ruler when Ivan died in 1696, while Peter was 24 years old. These are the wars that Russia fought in when Peter the Great was in charge: The Great Turkish War: In this war Russia fought against the Ottoman Empire and won. Peter believed he did not have enough loyal and talented persons to put in full charge of the various departments. In reality, the Russian-Swedish war took place two years before Catherine and Peter were even married. Sweden. St Petersburg, the second city fo Russia is named in his honor. Strelets Guard of Peter I . In 1721, the Treaty of Nystad ended the Great Northern War. [17]:60 Peter, in addition, ordered four more redoubts built so the entire system of ten forts would have a T shape, providing flanking fire to a Swedish advance. ", sfn error: no target: CITEREFNisbet1905 (, A. Lenton, "Voltaire and Peter the Great", Kathleen Scollins, "Cursing at the Whirlwind: The Old Testament Landscape of The Bronze Horseman. He used the wedding in order to launch his new capital, St Petersburg, where he had already ordered building projects of westernized palaces and buildings. Peter declared war on Sweden in August 1700 with the most important aim of expansion and regaining lost territories. Peter III was the grandson of two emperors. [9] Peter, however, lacked the overall proportional heft and bulk generally found in a man that size. "Russia under Peter the Great and the changed relations of East and West." Peter III was emperor of Russia for a mere six months in 1762 before he was overthrown by his wife, Catherine the Great, and assassinated in 1762. By his two wives, he had fourteen children. This led to the Great Northern War. Both his hands and feet were small,[10][citation needed] and his shoulders were narrow for his height; likewise, his head was small for his tall body. This revolt was contained in part by the forces of the Cossack Hetmanate led by Hetman Ivan Mazepa. He studied the English techniques of city-building he would later use to great effect at Saint Petersburg. He studied shipbuilding [17] in Zaandam (the house he lived in is now a museum, the Czar Peter House) and Amsterdam, where he visited, among others, the upper-class de Wilde family. Many new ideas have merged, such as whether he strengthened the autocratic state or whether the tsarist regime was not statist enough given its small bureaucracy. Formerly, precedence had been determined by birth. After considerable success and the capture of many provinces and cities in the Caucasus and northern mainland Persia, the Safavids were forced to hand over territory to Russia, comprising Derbent, Shirvan, Gilan, Mazandaran, Baku, and Astrabad. ': Death-bed images of Peter the Great. 301–02. in Sankt Petersburg), war von 1682 bis 1721 Zar und Großfürst von Russland und von 1721 bis 1725 der erste Kaiser des Russischen Reichs. This three-way alliance mustered the power of six nations and marched on Sweden with the belief that support for the young king was weak and the nobility would rebel in case of armed conflict . Following the victories by his army in the region now known as St. Petersburg and the area of Lake Ladoga, the Russians had established a port that provided them access to the Baltic Sea. Februar 1725greg. Peter’s military conquests were also beneficial to Russia. The traditional leader of the Church was the Patriarch of Moscow. [17]:110 After suffering severe casualties from several assault attempts, Roos led the remaining 1,500 of his original 2,600 men into the Yakovetski woods to the east at 6:00 a.m.[17]:114 The Russians reoccupied the first two redoubts[17]:115 and launched a two-pronged attack by ten regiments around 7:00 a.m., forcing Roos to retreat towards Poltava and take refuge in an abandoned fort by 9:00 a.m. when he could not make it to the Swedish siege works. [17]:155 Advancing to within 30 meters of the Russian line, the Swedes fired a volley of their own and charged with their muskets and pikesmen, and the Russian first line retreated towards their second line. [13]:707–08 Peter's force of 80,000 marched to relieve the siege. User: As a result of Peter the Great’s war against Sweden, Russia gained a. a warm-water port. [16]:289 Four columns of infantry and six columns of cavalry were to form during the night, 600 meters south of the redoubts, intending to attack before dawn in order to swiftly bypass the redoubt system and hit the Russian fort. [17]:159 As the Swedish right flank was still advancing, a gap began to open in the Swedish line which the Russians filled and the battle turned into a Cannae variation. Russian sources quote the captive Field Marshal Rehnskiöld stating that his combined army before the battle consisted of up to 30,000 men. [18], High-ranking Swedes captured during the battle included Field Marshal Rehnskiöld, Maj. Gen. Schlippenbach, Maj. Gen. Stackelberg, Maj. Gen. Hamilton and Prince Maximilian Emanuel, as well as Piper. Englund, P., 1992, The Battle that Shook Europe, London: I.B. Field of Poltava Battle Museum, Poltava Oblast, Poltava, Ukraine, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Petros Mirilas, et al. Strelets Court and Army of Peter I . The Battle of Poltava[e] (8 July 1709)[f] was the decisive victory of Peter the Great (Peter I of Russia) over the Swedish Empire forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War. Peter withdrew his army southward, employing scorched earth, destroying along the way anything that could assist the Swedes. The Swedish Empire was dominant in northern Europe around the turn of the 18th century. Power was instead exercised by his mother, Natalya Naryshkina. Jan van der Heyden, the inventor of the fire hose, received Peter, who was keen to learn and pass on his knowledge to his countrymen. [16]:288, By the spring of 1709 Charles' force had shrunk to half of its original size. Although young and inexperienced, Charles was able to successfully lead the Swedish resistance and attacks during the beginning of the war. The future Peter III was born Karl Peter Ulrich in 1728, in Kiel, Germany. Peter implemented sweeping reforms aimed at modernizing Russia. [17]:143 The Russians slowly moved forward to engage. d. land along the Black Sea Weegy: As a result of Peter the Great s war against Sweden, Russia gained - - b.LAND ALONG THE BALTIC SEA. Alexei was tried and confessed under torture during questioning conducted by a secular court. During his stay the Tsar engaged many skilled workers such as builders of locks, fortresses, shipwrights, and seamen—including Cornelis Cruys, a vice-admiral who became, under Franz Lefort, the Tsar's advisor in maritime affairs. [17]:189, 192 Emerging from the woods at around noon, Charles—on horseback after his litter was destroyed and protected by a square of a couple of thousand men—headed to Pushkaryovka and his baggage train 5 km to the south, reaching it after 1:00 p.m., by which time the battle was over. Biopic of Peter I, Czar of Russia, from childhood in 1682 to the Great Northern War against Sweden during the 1700s. [16]:289 In addition, Charles' last hope of reinforcement expired, as the Swedish forces under von Krassow had turned aside to deal with the anti-Swedish Sandomierz Confederation in Poland. ", Albert Resis, "Russophobia and the 'Testament' of Peter the Great, 1812-1980, James Cracraft, "The Russian Empire as Cultural Construct,", Lindsey Hughes, "'What manner of man did we lose? [13]:703 Peter subsequently adopted a scorched-earth policy in order to deprive the Swedish forces of supplies. Small groups of soldiers managed to break through and escape to the south through the Budyschenski woods, while many of the rest were overwhelmed, ridden down or captured. Peter preferred to rely on groups of individuals who would keep check on one another. He forbade the building of stone edifices outside Saint Petersburg, which he intended to become Russia's capital, so that all stonemasons could participate in the construction of the new city. He sought to acquire control of the Baltic Sea, which had been taken by the Swedish Empire a half-century earlier. Meanwhile, Russia wanted a year-round port on that sea, and the Tsar Peter the Great created an alliance with the Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway and Augustus II of Saxony and Poland-Lithuania. Russia. Each college consisted of a president, a vice-president, a number of councilors and assessors, and a procurator. The Battle of Poltava (8 July 1709) was the decisive victory of Peter the Great (Peter I of Russia) over the Swedish Empire forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War. [23] The Embassy next went to Leipzig, Dresden, Prague and Vienna. ", Kamenskii, Alexander. The Swedes continued to wait for Roos' troops to return, unaware of their surrender. The Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great, was a war between the Russian Empire and Safavid Iran, triggered by the tsar's attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, the Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of declining Safavid Iran. Charles XII's loss essentially ensured the end of The Swedish Empire. Peter the Great is most famous for initiating the modernization of Russia and making it into a major maritime power. From this war, Russia gained control over territory along the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. Peter returned to Moscow in November 1695 and began building a large navy. Соответствие их с государевым титулом. Swedish king Charles XII turned his attention to Russia, invading it in 1708. To arrive Ottoman Turks for the Swedes continued to wait for Roos ' troops to return, the Emperor. 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